Where There's Smoke

Report on smoking trends and tobacco smoke exposure

 Secondhand Smoke Effects on Children

Children may be more vulnerable to the impact of air pollution than adults. Children’s lung development is not complete at birth and does not complete their growth until full adult stature is achieved in adolescence, and Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke slows the rate of growth [1]Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Gilliland F, London S, Thomas D, Avol E, et al. Association between air pollution and lung function growth in southern California children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. … Continue reading.

Because nicotine and other tobacco toxins cross the placenta, children are harmed from exposure to tobacco toxins starting in utero. This exposure can be both from the mother’s tobacco product use as well as her exposure (via inhalation or absorption) to the tobacco smoke of others. Children are harmed from secondhand tobacco smoke exposure by breathing in the smoke emitted by others who are using combustible tobacco products [2]US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, … Continue reading.

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Tobacco smoke exposure increases an infant’s risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This conclusion was a major finding of the 2006 Report of the Surgeon General. [3]Ibid, US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke; 2006. Both prenatal and postnatal exposure contributes to the risk. A Dutch case-control study compared 142 SIDS case subjects versus 2841 control subjects recruited from well-infant clinics. The study found that, compared with nonsmoking parents, parental smoking led to an increased risk of SIDS, with the risk greater if both parents were smokers, versus if 1 parent was a smoker, demonstrating a dose-response effect [4]Liebrechts-Akkerman G, Lao O, Liu F, et al. Postnatal parental smoking: an important risk factor for SIDS. Eur J Pediatr. 2011;170(10):1281–1291.

Atherosclerosis

There is strong evidence that tobacco smoke exposure in children leads to findings of preclinical atherosclerosis. [5]Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke. Harold J. Farber, Judith Groner, Susan Walley, Kevin Nelson and Section on Tobacco Control. Pediatrics 2015;136;e1439. DOI: … Continue reading. Preclinical atherosclerosis leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular events, especially if it is associated with Metabolic Syndrome, which are conditions that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes [6]Ferri FF. Metabolic syndrome. In: Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2019. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2019. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 12, 2019.

Asthma

Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of asthma, wheezing, and asthma exacerbations in children [7]Op. Cit. US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke; 2006.

Secondhand tobacco smoke also causes

  • Tobacco smoke exposure increases the risk of middle ear disease.  A meta-analysis found that maternal postnatal smoking (20 studies) and household smoking (49 studies) dramatically increases the risk for otitis media – a type of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear [8]Jones LL, Hassanien A, Cook DG, Britton J, Leonardi-Bee J. Parental smoking and the risk of middle ear disease in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. … Continue reading.
  • Respiratory symptoms (for example, coughing, sneezing, and shortness of breath).
    “The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between parental smoking and cough, phlegm, wheeze, and breathlessness among children of school age”; “The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and persistent adverse effects on lung function across childhood”; and “The evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship between exposure to secondhand smoke after birth and a lower level of lung function during childhood”[9]Ibid, US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke; 2006.
  • Respiratory infections (bronchitis and pneumonia), and increases the severity of bronchitis.
  • Several studies show that there is strong evidence that both active smoking and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure of the mother during pregnancy increase the child’s later risk of being overweight [10]Paternal smoking and childhood overweight: evidence from the Hong Kong “Children of 1997”. Pediatrics. cit-pub-id cit-pub-id-pmid. 20587672 [11]Ino T, Shibuya T, Saito K, Inaba Y. Relationship between body mass index of offspring and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Int J Obes. 2012;36(4):554–558pmid:22184058 [12]Weng SF, Redsell SA, Nathan D, Swift JA, Yang M, Glazebrook C. Estimating overweight risk in childhood from predictors during infancy. Pediatrics. 2013;132(2 [13]Weng SF, Redsell SA, Swift JA, Yang M, Glazebrook CP. Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy. Arch Dis Child. … Continue reading.

References

References
1 Gauderman WJ, McConnell R, Gilliland F, London S, Thomas D, Avol E, et al. Association between air pollution and lung function growth in southern California children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162(4 Pt 1):1383-90
2 US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2006
3 Ibid, US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke; 2006
4 Liebrechts-Akkerman G, Lao O, Liu F, et al. Postnatal parental smoking: an important risk factor for SIDS. Eur J Pediatr. 2011;170(10):1281–1291
5 Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke. Harold J. Farber, Judith Groner, Susan Walley, Kevin Nelson and Section on Tobacco Control. Pediatrics 2015;136;e1439. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2015-3110 originally published online October 26, 2015;
6 Ferri FF. Metabolic syndrome. In: Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2019. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2019. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed Feb. 12, 2019
7 Op. Cit. US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke; 2006
8 Jones LL, Hassanien A, Cook DG, Britton J, Leonardi-Bee J. Parental smoking and the risk of middle ear disease in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012;166(1):18–27pmid:21893640
9 Ibid, US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke; 2006
10 Paternal smoking and childhood overweight: evidence from the Hong Kong “Children of 1997”. Pediatrics. cit-pub-id cit-pub-id-pmid. 20587672
11 Ino T, Shibuya T, Saito K, Inaba Y. Relationship between body mass index of offspring and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Int J Obes. 2012;36(4):554–558pmid:22184058
12 Weng SF, Redsell SA, Nathan D, Swift JA, Yang M, Glazebrook C. Estimating overweight risk in childhood from predictors during infancy. Pediatrics. 2013;132(2
13 Weng SF, Redsell SA, Swift JA, Yang M, Glazebrook CP. Systematic review and meta-analyses of risk factors for childhood overweight identifiable during infancy. Arch Dis Child. 2012;97(12):1019–1026pmid:23109090